zxcvb: 維也納新年音樂會:圓舞曲傳統與藝術創新

維也納新年音樂會:圓舞曲傳統與藝術創新


25 Apr 2024 at 08:10pm
  Ⅰ.傳統的確

  「維也納愛樂樂團新年音樂會的魅力和人氣造成這樣一種印象,那就是演奏施特勞斯的音樂是這個樂團的傳統之一,可以一直追溯至'圓舞曲之王'本人。但歷史事實並不能印證這一點。身為集作曲與指揮於一身的最忙碌的史特勞斯家族成員,約翰史特勞斯的演出主要是指揮他自己的樂團。事實上,維也納愛樂樂團的不少創始成員也是在約翰施特勞斯樂團中開始他們的職業生涯的(據約翰施特勞斯的三弟愛德華在1886年統計,維也納愛樂樂團中有史特勞斯樂團工作背景的不少於27位),然而在相當一段時間裡,維也納愛樂樂團的音樂會節目單中並沒有約翰史特勞斯的圓舞曲和其他任何作品。康藥本鋪春藥壯陽藥持久液增大丸犀利士威而鋼樂威壯必利吉必利勁

Viamax增大丸Maxman增大丸goodman增大丸增大軟膏法國綠騎士日本夜狼原因是,音樂家們擔心這些輕鬆娛樂舞曲會拉低愛樂音樂會的藝術高度和社會地位。儘管從同時代最「嚴肅」的作曲家瓦格納、布拉姆斯和布魯克納,到以挑剔著稱的音樂評論家漢斯立克,對約翰施特勞斯的音樂均有高度稱讚,但觀念中的等級差異仍構成藝術屏障。

  轉變發生在1873年4月22日,在歌劇院舞會(舉辦地點並非宮廷歌劇院,而是「金色大廳」)上,繼奧托德索夫指揮卡爾馬利亞馮韋伯的《邀舞》之後,約翰史特勞斯登台,以他的「標誌性」指揮風格——邊演奏小提琴邊指揮——完成了他的新作《維也納氣質》圓舞曲的世界首演,也標誌著「圓舞曲之王」與宮廷歌劇院樂團即維也納愛樂樂團的「嚴肅音樂家」們歷史性的首次聯袂。同年11月4日,在維也納世界博覽會期間,二者再次合作,這一次,約翰施特勞斯指揮了他父親老約翰施特勞斯和約瑟夫蘭納的樂曲以及他自己的《藍色多瑙河》圓舞曲。 1894年10月15日,慶祝約翰史特勞斯作為指揮家首次登台50週年的專場音樂會在「金色大廳」舉行。這次,維也納愛樂樂團在整場音樂會上演奏的全部為約翰史特勞斯的作品,成為新年音樂會的先聲。

  1925年10月舉行的約翰史特勞斯誕辰百年紀念,成為一個重要里程碑。而維也納愛樂樂團的第一場“新年音樂會”,克里斯托弗瓦格納-特倫克維茨在《一種聲音傳統:維也納愛樂樂團簡史》中寫道:“實際上舉辦於盛夏時節: 1929年8月11日,年輕的國家歌劇院總監克萊門斯克勞斯在薩爾茨堡音樂節上指揮了一場曲目為清一色施特勞斯作品的音樂會。 ,一年中的最後一天成為每年舉行的圓舞曲和波爾卡音樂會的誕生之日,仍由克勞斯指揮,作為新舊之年交替的標誌。 ,以《晨報》圓舞曲作為開場曲,10首樂曲全部為約翰史特勞斯的作品。如今每年作為壓軸曲目的《藍色多瑙河》圓舞曲和老約翰史特勞斯的《拉德茨基進行曲》都沒有出現在曲目中。然而,對於新年音樂會傳統的確立而言,這卻是堪稱古典音樂當代奇觀的維也納新年音樂會最關鍵的起點

  Ⅱ.「紀念品音樂」?

  構成維也納新年音樂會傳統的核心因素首先且始終是曲目——「圓舞曲之王」約翰史特勞斯和他的父兄以及他們同時代其他作曲家的圓舞曲、波爾卡、進行曲、輕歌劇序曲等。年復一年,儘世界三大約會強暴藥GHBFM2DDK迷姦粉催情水日本淑女剋星精華素一滴銷魂

卡宴春藥金蒼蠅美國黑金美國黑魔英國威馬印度神油JOKER2H2D德國愛神

管曲目搭配會呈現出微妙變化——紀念性元素、指揮家的文化背景和個人喜好都會成為影響曲目選擇的因素,但兩位約翰施特勞斯以及約瑟夫施特勞斯和愛德華史特勞斯這父子四人的作品作為每年的曲目主體,形成維也納新年音樂會的傳統風格。這些維也納當地風味濃鬱的音樂,在維也納愛樂樂團的演奏中煥發出獨特魅力,使得維也納愛樂樂團新年音樂會在全世界無數同類演出中獨領風騷,無可替代。然而,近年來,儘管新年音樂會的電視直播國家一直在穩定增加,但與「極致視聽盛宴」的讚譽相伴,懷疑的聲音也不時出現:以施特勞斯家族音樂為代表的輕鬆舞曲音樂,是否具有足夠的藝術含量值得全世界億萬人年復一年地在新年第一天專注期待?人們是為了音樂而聽,還是為享受被定位為優雅新年儀式的活動?是否如鋼琴家弗里德里希古爾達所懷疑的,很多人其實是為了「一些人們認為重要的東西,而且能夠使自己加入某種有檔次的習慣中」?就像世界各國的遊客在維也納一定要到城市公園內約翰施特勞斯鍍金雕像前「打卡」留念一樣。

  在弗朗茨威爾澤-莫斯特於2013年第二度指揮維也納新年音樂會時,英國《留聲機》雜誌作者菲利普克拉克與這位指揮家有一篇題為《圓舞曲回到未來》的深度訪談,刊發於《留聲機》2013年1月號。其中談到圓舞曲的“不確定地位”,也就是說,像《藍色多瑙河》這樣的音樂,究竟是實用性音樂,還是“藝術音樂”?在威爾澤-莫斯特看來,「奧地利圓舞曲並不僅僅是歡快的舞曲,其中有深度和憂鬱,人們需要感受到這一點。你看,我們距離波西米亞很近,波西米亞民謠音樂總是充滿渴望和思鄉之情。高度,圓舞曲這種體裁本身限制了藝術表現的多面性。然而,這不影響最好的圓舞曲可以成為豐富而深刻的藝術傑作。

  當電影《2001太空漫遊》以「圓舞曲之王」約翰史特勞斯的《藍色多瑙河》圓舞曲作為伴隨太空船駛向太空站和月球的音樂時,液態威而鋼雙效威而鋼一想就硬華佗神丹三體牛鞭保羅V8印度學名藥cenforce

必利勁poxet必利吉p-force日本藤素海狗丸韓國奇力片樂威壯汗馬糖犀利士並非所有的觀眾都能接受導演史丹利庫伯力克的這種做法。有一種觀點認為,這樣的音樂會讓人聯想到飯店舞廳樂團或維也納輕歌劇,從而讓觀眾的注意力脫離太空。對此,庫伯力克的解釋是:「很難找到另外一首比《藍色多瑙河》更能表現旋轉運動的崇高感的優美樂曲。」他認為,約翰史特勞斯音樂中內在的複雜舞蹈律動,與太空站的優雅運動有著奇妙的契合。在這樣的脈絡中,這首著名的圓舞曲脫離與舞蹈、與河流的聯繫,而具有了新的意蘊與美。 《2001太空漫遊》在音樂運用上遇到的質疑,在很大程度上代表了《藍色多瑙河》等維也納舞曲音樂在不同受眾群中得到的不同評價,以及在音樂史家中和學術研究領域引發的爭議

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